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Какво трябва да знаете за безжичните mesh мрежи

Networkworld България - брой 4, 2017 г. / Телеком мрежи
Технологията обещава големи предимства за изграждане на по-надеждни и по-високоскоростни безжични инфраструктури.
1184 прочитания, 6

Някои потребители все още смятат, че безжичната решетъчна (Mesh) мрежа е само още един маркетингов трик за продажбата на нови Wi-Fi маршрутизатори, фраза, която да оправдае вдигането на цените, без да носи съществени предимства. Но този път можете да си спестите скептичното отношение – технологията mesh предоставя значителни предимства спрямо стандартните поостарели вече Wi-Fi рутери, които купуваме от години и все още са на пазара.

Мрежите тип решетка (mesh) са отказоустойчиви, самоконфигуриращи се и много ефикасни. Не трябва да се занимавате с тях след първоначалната настройка, като те предоставят безспорно най-добрата и най-високата пропусквателна способност, която можете да постигнете в дома, офиса или на открито пространство. Тези предимства накараха редица стартиращи фирми, както и установили се на пазара компании да пуснат mesh системи, подходящи за дома и малкия бизнес.

Mesh мрежите решават един специфичен проблем – покриват относително голяма площ, над 100 кв.м на етаж или няколкоетажна сгрда, особено ако няма налично Ethernet окабеляване, което да улеснява кабелното свързване на не-mesh Wi-Fi рутери и на безжични точки за достъп. Всички днешни mesh екосистеми предлагат проста и лесна употреба. Можете да постигнете много неща само чрез няколко команди от уеб базирания контролен панел на най-популярните традиционни Wi-Fi модели.

Прочетете още: Intel подсили позициите си в ЦОД с платформата Xeon Scalable Processor

 

Традиционният безжичен маршрутизатор предлага ограничено покритие, ако към него през кабелна линия не са свързани допълнителни Wi-Fi точки за достъп. Снимка: Luma Home, Inc.

Какво означава решетка (mesh)?

Концепцията за решетъчните (mesh) мрежи се появява за първи път през 80-те години на миналия век при военни експерименти, а в търговски вариант се появяват през 90-те години.

Но изискванията към хардуера, радиочипа и радиочестотния спектър, цената и пазарната наличност осигуриха на технологията достъп до потребителското оборудване едва през последните няколко години. Ето защо много системи излязоха почти едновременно на пазара.

Mesh мрежата третира всяка базова станция като възел, който обменя информация постоянно за мрежовите условия с всички съседни възли. Това позволява на възлите, които не изпращат и не получават данни помежду си, все пак да знаят за съществуването си. Това знание може да е качено в облака или във фърмуера на всеки рутер.

Mesh мрежите не препращат всички данни, които преминават през набора от базови станции. Системите на пазара динамично настройват радио характеристиките и каналите, за да създадат възможно най-малка интерференция и най-голяма покривана площ, а това води до много високо ниво на пропусквателната способност – много по-голяма от тази, която е възможна с технологията WDS (Wireless Distribution System) и други подобни системи с радиочестотни излъчване.

Мрежовите Mesh рутери свързват многобройни безжични възли, за да покрият целия дом или офис с Wi-Fi сигнал. Снимка: Luma Home, Inc.

Принципът на всички безжични комуникации е „как да предаваме даден брой битове в най-малкия брой микросекунди и след това да „се махна“ и да оставя някой друг да използва канала“, обяснява Матю Гаст, бивш председател на комитета IEEE 802.11, който определя спецификациите, използвани от Wi -Fi. Mesh мрежите управляват този принцип по-добре от WDS.

В някои случаи mesh възел може да изпрати пакет от данни до само един друг възел. В други случаи при слаб сигнал и други фактори може да пренасочи пакета през други възли, за да достигне до базовата станция, към която е свързано крайното безжично устройство.

Някои mesh рутери имат радиочипове, работещи едновременно само в един радиообхват и се ползват по-скоро като смарт разширители на обхвата. Но в повечето случаи възлите има радиочипове за две или дори три радиочестотни обхвата. Това дава възможност за превключване на каналите за намаляване на задръстванията или за смесване на клиентски данни и на данни от backhaul линията в един и същи канал.

Традиционните рутери от висок клас предлагат характеристики с висока производителност, които в момента не присъстват в mesh системите. Моделът Netgear Nighthawk X10 например има 10Gbps Ethernet порт за връзка със мрежова система за съхранение.



Крайната цел е да се гарантира, че максимално голям пропусквателен капацитет за наистина продуктивния трафик като поточно 4K видео или създаването на бързи връзки за интернет игрите с много играчи.

Ако захранване на възела спре или той откаже по друга причина, мрежата все още остава работоспособна. И тъй като всеки възел може да продължи да комуникира с поне още един друг възел, ще разполагате с напълно функционална мрежа.

Обикновено разчитате на смартфон, с който да настроите първия възел и мрежовите параметри и след това да добавите още възли към съществуващата мрежа. Тъй като не трябва да планирате накъде „отиват“ mesh възлите, mesh системите автоматично се преконфигурират с добавянето на още възли. Повечето системи на пазара предлагат помощ при определянето на това къде да намерят устройствата, като някои използват индикатори в самите възли, а други изискват софтуер за смартфони. „Изисква се огромно количество инженерни усилия, за да се направи нещо толкова просто“, казва Гаст.

Умно е да инвестираме в mesh мрежи

Цената, която плащате за по-висока ефективност? Частни протоколи. И докато Wi-Fi са стандартизирани, така че оборудването на различните производители е надеждно съвместимо, то две различни mesh системи не работят заедно. Първият mesh протокол 802.11h се оказа недостатъчен, за да изпълни задачата, тъй като бе игнориран от компаниите, които се опитват да постигнат по-добри резултати и конкурентни предимства. Не се очаква в следващите няколко години да се появи съвместим индустриален стандарт, тъй като в момента дори не се работи по неговото създаване.

Всеки голям производител на маршрутизатори и редица стартиращи фирми се насочиха към пазарната ниша на mesh мрежите.

Има поне 3 основни причини да искате съвместимост. Това е начин да се сдобиете с по-евтино оборудване, ако даден доставчик се опитва да ви „изнудва“ с цената за допълнителните възли. Съвместимостта е и средство да се „избяга“ от фалирала компания или продукти, които вече не се поддържат. Трето, това е начин да се надгради мрежата постепенно за поддръжка на нови стандарти.

Някои от производителите днес са стартиращи фирми като Eero, Luma и Securifi, а не всички стартиращи фирми успяват да се наложат. Установените вече фирми като D-Link, Linksys, Netgear и TP-Link, правят хардуер за mesh мрежи, но ако тази продуктова линия не им носи печалба, те едва ли ще продължат да я произвеждат.

Да „изтъчем“ още по-фина mesh мрежa

Бъдещето на mesh мрежите не е във все повече и повече възли. По-скоро това ще са възли, в които са вградени повече и различни видове радиоприемници и други функции. Някои mesh възли разполагат с Bluetooth за конфигуриране и за контролиране на персонални мрежи, като до три Wi-Fi радиочипа поддържат пълния спектър от Wi-Fi стандарти - 802.11a/b/g/n/ac.

Бъдещите възли може да добавят още радиочипове или хардуерно добавяне на функционалност 802.11ac Wave 2, която дава възможност за формиране на лъчи и за „следене“ на крайното устройство. По този начин ще се раздели още по-добре трафика между възлите от този между самите устройства. Освен това те могат да се сдобият и с поддръжка на 802.11ad/Wi-Gig за супер високоскоростен пренос на UHD видео или на технологии като ZigBee и други стандарти за интелигентния дом.

(13.10.2017)

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20181009lck
Трябва да сте регистриран потребител, за да коментирате статията
"Какво трябва да знаете за безжичните mesh мрежи"



    

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